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Session 1B [clear filter]
Saturday, September 27
 

10:20

Session 1B: Privacy
"Why We Share: How the Utility of Social Media Relates to Privacy."
Kelly Quinn

"Representative data sovereignty: Overcoming big data’s challenge to flawed consumer choice policy."
Jonathan Obar

"Ensuring Privacy of Participants in Social Media Based Research: an Australian perspective."
Chandana Unnithan and Paula Swatman Pmc

"Compressing Comments: Reactions to Perceived Organizational Control via Social Media Surveillance."
Bree Mcewan

Moderators
avatar for Anabel Quan-Haase

Anabel Quan-Haase

Professor, Western University
Looking forward to hearing about novel methods in the study of social media, new trends, and social activism. I am also curious about interdisciplinary teams and how they work. Any success stories, best practices or failures?

Speakers
avatar for Bree Mcewan

Bree Mcewan

Associate Professor, Western Illinois University
Researching intersection of interpersonal and computer-mediated communication. Would love to chat with people about measures (recently published Facebook Relational Maintenance Measure and have Affordances measure in the works) and linguistic analyses (working on some LIWC stuff... Read More →
JO

Jonathan Obar

Assistant Professor, York University
PM

Paula M.C. Swatman

Adjunct Professor of Information Systems, University of Tasmania
avatar for Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Faculty - Information Systems, Victoria University
I am a faculty member in the field of Information Systems Management with Victoria University, Australia (and also teach at Charles Darwin University). I teach IT Project management, Enterprise Business Applications, and Professional Practice. My current research focus is on social... Read More →


Saturday September 27, 2014 10:20 - 11:40
TRS 1-129 Ted Rogers School of Management

10:21

"Why We Share: How the Utility of Social Media Relates to Privacy"

Background: Privacy concerns and privacy behaviors are related concepts, but paradoxically do not often correlate well (Reynolds, et al., 2011; Taddicken, 2014; Zafeiropoulou, et al., 2013). The contradiction between stated privacy preferences and actual privacy behaviors has suggested a willingness to trade privacy regulation for social goals (Ellison, et al., 2011) or for the convenience that these platforms bring to managing social relationships (Krasnova, et al., 2010). Though the uses and gratifications of social media platforms, and motivations for their use, have been well mapped by researchers (e.g., Chen, 2011; Park, et al., 2009; Quan-Haase, et al., 2010), how the social utility of these platforms intersects with a user’s privacy attitudes and actual privacy behaviors is only just now garnering attention. One study examined users’ willingness to trade privacy for monetary gain (Acquisti, et al., 2013), but further examination of other forms of privacy exchanges is warranted.  

Objective: This study examines the relationship between sociality, social media utility, and privacy in an attempt to explore the contextual dimensions of privacy regulation processes. The goal is to provide greater insight into how everyday privacy practices and concerns relate to social media use, and also to how the utility of social media platforms, such as gains in social capital and desire for entertainment, influence privacy producing behaviors.

Methods: A self-administered, web-based survey of approximately 450 social media users collected data on privacy concerns, online privacy strategies and behaviors, the uses and gratifications that social media experiences bring, and measures of social capital. Methods of statistical exploration included principle component analysis, canonical correlation analysis and regression.

Results: The data reveal that concerns about a loss of information control, the future life of information, and authoritarian misuse of information factor both into the use of technological measures for privacy protection and also the deployment of more socially-oriented content curation strategies. Social media use related to the acquisition of bridging social capital and facilitation of identity management processes is tempered by privacy concerns which relate to concerns for the future life of information and the potential loss of information control. Use of social media out of habit is associated with the use of social curation strategies as a privacy regulation focus; to a lesser extent, the use of social media with an entertainment focus is linked to the use of systemic controls in privacy management.

Conclusions: This study provides a better understanding of how various dimensions of social media use relate to privacy concerns and privacy management practices, and ultimately how the dynamic of privacy and sociality is understood and enacted by users, It adds to the growing base of literature on how sociality and privacy intersect through the use of social media, and how privacy concerns are mitigated through privacy producing behaviors.

References: 

Acquisti, A., John, L. K., & Loewenstein, G. (2013). What Is Privacy Worth? The Journal of Legal Studies, 42(2), 249–274. doi:10.1086/671754

Chen, G. M. (2011). Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 755–762. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.10.023

Ellison, N. B., Vitak, J., Steinfield, C., Gray, R., & Lampe, C. (2011). Negotiating Privacy Concerns and Social Capital Needs in a Social Media Environment. In S. Trepte & L. Reinecke (Eds.), Privacy Online: Perspectives on Privacy and Self-Disclosure in the Social Web (pp. 19–32). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21521-6

Krasnova, H., Spiekermann, S., Koroleva, K., & Hildebrand, T. (2010). Online social networks : why we disclose. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 109–125. doi:10.1057/jit.2010.6

Park, N., Kee, K. F., & Valenzuela, S. (2009). Being immersed in social networking environment: Facebook groups, uses and gratifications, and social outcomes. Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 12(6), 729–33. doi:10.1089/cpb.2009.0003

Quan-Haase, A., & Young, A. L. (2010). Uses and Gratifications of Social Media: A Comparison of Facebook and Instant Messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30(5), 350–361. doi:10.1177/0270467610380009

Reynolds, B., Venkatanathan, J., Gonçalves, J., & Kostakos, V. (2011). Sharing ephemeral information in online social networks: privacy perceptions and behaviours. In Human-Computer Interaction–INTERACT 2011 (pp. 204-215). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-23765-2_14.

Taddicken, M. (2014). The “Privacy Paradox” in the Social Web: The Impact of Privacy Concerns, Individual Characteristics, and the Perceived Social Relevance on Different Forms of Self-Disclosure. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(2), 248-273. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12052

Zafeiropoulou, A. M., Millard, D. E., Webber, C., & O’Hara, K. (2013). Unpicking the privacy paradox. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference - WebSci ‘13 (pp. 463–472). New York: ACM Press. doi:10.1145/2464464.2464503

 


Speakers

Saturday September 27, 2014 10:21 - 10:40
TRS 1-129 Ted Rogers School of Management

10:41

"Representative data sovereignty: Overcoming big data’s challenge to flawed consumer choice policy"

Background: In 1927, Walter Lippmann published The Phantom Public, arguing for what he referred to as the ‘fallacy of direct democracy’. Lippmann wrote, “I have not happened to meet anybody, from a President of the United States to a professor of political science, who came anywhere near to embodying the accepted ideal of the sovereign and omnicompetent citizen” (Lippmann, 1927: 11). Had we the faculties and the system for enabling millions to realize popular rule, to control all areas of government ranging from the military, to health care, to infrastructure, to education, none of us would have time for work, family or enjoyment. In this ‘fantasy’, Lippmann argued, society would remain at a standstill, or worse yet, be doomed.

Repurposing Lippmann, this paper argues that new and existing data privacy legislation derived from the OECD Privacy Principles (e.g. Canada, EU, Brazil and US) strongly favors a flawed informed consumer choice model that perpetuates a similar fantasy – personal data sovereignty. Had we the faculties and the system for enabling every digital citizen the ability to understand and continually manage the evolving data-driven Internet, to control the data being collected, organized, analyzed, repurposed and sold by every application, commercial organization, non-commercial organization, government agency, data broker and third-party, to understand and provide informed consent to every terms of service agreement, and privacy policy - would we have time to actually use the Internet? To work? To enjoy? This is the fallacy of personal data sovereignty in a digital universe increasingly defined by big data.

If it is true that the fallacy of direct democracy is similar to the fallacy of personal data sovereignty, then the pragmatic solution is representative data sovereignty; a combination of for-profit/non-profit digital dossier management and government oversight ensuring the protection of personal data, while freeing individuals from what Lippmann referred to as an ‘unattainable ideal.’

Objective: Through a combination of policy and case study analysis, this paper aims to demonstrate the limitations of legislative efforts that favour informed consumer choice models of personal data privacy. New and existing forms of representative data sovereignty are discussed as more pragmatic alternatives.

Methods: A policy analysis of 4 legislative efforts (drawing from the OECD’s Privacy Principles) favouring an informed consumer choice model is conducted. These efforts include: Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, the EU’s Data Protection Directive, Brazil’s Marco Civil legislation and the U.S. Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. Three case studies are analyzed to provide justification for the policy critique: Noam Galai’s ‘Stolen Scream’, Max Schrem’s europe-v.facebook.org, and Hunter Moore’s revenge porn business. A discussion of the successful strategies of various identify theft protection companies, early representative data sovereigns (for example, Lifelock), will follow.

Results: The policy/case study analysis demonstrates that flawed informed consumer choice policy models are both widespread and incapable of addressing the challenges to data sovereignty posed by big data.

Conclusions: The possibilities presented by representative data sovereignty, evidenced by the successful efforts of various for profit enterprises operating mainly in the United States suggest that alternative policy approaches to data sovereignty must be considered.

References: 

Lippmann, W. (1927; 2009 edition) The Phantom Public. New Jersey: Transaction

            Publishers.

 


Speakers
JO

Jonathan Obar

Assistant Professor, York University


Saturday September 27, 2014 10:41 - 11:00
TRS 1-129 Ted Rogers School of Management

11:01

"Ensuring Privacy of Participants in Social Media Based Research: an Australian perspective"

Background: Content analysis offers an effective approach to inquiring into ethical challenges in social media based research. Content from social media sites used for the small number of research studies conducted to date, taken in conjunction with the various national human research ethics guidelines, offer a means of understanding how ethical challenges of privacy and anonymity can be (and are being) addressed for responsible social media-based research.

Objective: The paper explores the ways in which privacy/anonymity of participants can be ensured in social media-based research in the Australian context. Using the notion of trust and privacy within a set of selected social media channels through which participants are recruited for specific research studies, we initially identify what is being done and analyse the effectiveness of these approaches. Subsequently, we seek to identify emerging avenues of exploration and offer strategies for enhanced efficacy.

Methods:  Content analysis was used to examine a purposive sample of ethics applications where social media had been utilised for participant recruitment. Parameters for ensuring privacy and anonymity of participants were analysed and compared against the track record of specific social media platforms on ensuring privacy and anonymity to validate the claim. In addition, we analysed parameters instituted specifically by Australian universities as well as the national Privacy Law protection measures.

Results: The content analysis uncovered challenges that need to be addressed in the Australian context, if social media-based research is to be used effectively for recruitment of research participants. This paper focuses on the Australian experience, but provides insights to the application of a similar approach in, for example, the USA, Canada or the European Union.

Conclusions:  Content analysis and information visualisation exploiting visual analytics techniques with a purposive sample, within a specific country (Australia) has provided insights that can help in understanding what is being done and what needs to be done to address the ethical challenges in social media research – initially, from an Australian perspective.  

References: 

Swatman, P.M.C. (2012). Ethical Issues in Social Networking Research. Victoria/Tasmania University Ethics Network Seminar, Deakin University, 1 August 2012, Available from: http://www.deakin.edu.au/health/research/research-downloads.php

 

 


Speakers
PM

Paula M.C. Swatman

Adjunct Professor of Information Systems, University of Tasmania
avatar for Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Dr. Chandana Unnithan

Faculty - Information Systems, Victoria University
I am a faculty member in the field of Information Systems Management with Victoria University, Australia (and also teach at Charles Darwin University). I teach IT Project management, Enterprise Business Applications, and Professional Practice. My current research focus is on social... Read More →


Saturday September 27, 2014 11:01 - 11:20
TRS 1-129 Ted Rogers School of Management

11:21

"Compressing Comments: Reactions to Perceived Organizational Control via Social Media Surveillance"

Background: With 73% of internet users using social network sites (Pew Internet, 2014), important questions have been raised regarding privacy and identity management in online venues. Through implied surveillance, organizations may influence the way that individuals feel they can present themselves online. This influence can lead to identity compression (McEwan & Mease, 2013).  Due to the outsize influence of workplaces in society, individuals may feel that they need to conform to generalized professional standards (McEwan & Mease, 2013) or to the gaze of selected high status others within the workplace (Hogan, 2010). New stories highlighting organizational consequences may provide warnings to individuals regarding the need to remove presentations of undesirable facets of self or face adverse actions in the workplace and job market.  

Objective: This paper explores comments on a Yahoo! article reporting on a trend of employers asking for social media passwords during interviews. While reports of such behavior on the part of employers may be overblown, the comments represent collective assessment of perceived organizational control via surveillance of social media.

Methods: An inductive qualitative theme analysis was conducted on 4,725 unique comments.

Results:   Some commenters placed the blame for the problem of asking for Facebook codes on the employers or higher authorities. Commenters found it was unethical for employers to gather such information and also thought it was bad hiring practice because asking for Facebook passwords would yield discriminatory information that employers should avoid (such as race, age, creed, sexual orientation) or because people who gave up passwords easily would not be good stewards of the organization’s internet security. Commenters also pointed to asking for Facebook passwords as one stopping place in organizational creep, noting that employers already ask for drug tests and credit checks and speculating how far employers will go in the future.  In regards to higher authorities, many commenters invoked images of fascism (typically by invoking Hitler or Big Brother but also through blaming Obama or Republicans for promoting an authoritarian state). Some comments encouraged resistance through refusal (simply not giving up the passwords), manipulation (providing false account information), and quid pro quo (asking for the interviewer’s password). Other commenters suggested that individual users are at the root of the problem. These commenters sometimes praised themselves as virtuous non-users and argued for the irresponsibility of social media users for using the sites at all or posting undesirable artifacts to their Facebook account.  Other commenters thought asking for passwords was reasonable for occupations such as law enforcement (good for some) and that only those with something to hide would express concern about giving their password.

Conclusions: The emerging codes represent a complex reaction to organizational surveillance. The collective commentary illuminates several paradoxes in reactions to identity compression. Commenters appear to want to remain concealed from organizational gazes while remaining a part of the greater social network. In claims to fascism and organization creep they express futility, but another vein of the commentary presents individuals as being able to outsmart authority by either manipulating technology or staying off social media. These findings may reflect the difficulty people have in living multi-faceted crystallized selves while presenting mediated compressions of self (Tracy & Trethewey, 2002; McEwan & Mease, 2013).

References: 

Hogan, B. (2010). The presentation of self in the age of social media: Distinguishing performances and exhibitions online. Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 30, 377-386.

McEwan, B., & Mease, J. (2013). Compressed crystals: A metaphor for mediated identity expression. In C. Cunningham (Ed.). Social networking and impression management: Self-presentation in the digital age. (pp. 85-106). Lanham, MD: Lexington.

Tracy, S. J., & Trethewey, A. (2005) Fracturing the real—self—fake—self dichotomy: Moving toward crystallized organizational identities. Communication Theory, 15, 168-195.

 


Speakers
avatar for Bree Mcewan

Bree Mcewan

Associate Professor, Western Illinois University
Researching intersection of interpersonal and computer-mediated communication. Would love to chat with people about measures (recently published Facebook Relational Maintenance Measure and have Affordances measure in the works) and linguistic analyses (working on some LIWC stuff... Read More →


Saturday September 27, 2014 11:21 - 11:41
TRS 1-129 Ted Rogers School of Management